# OEM testing

ExoPlayer is used by a large number of Android applications. As an OEM, it’s important to ensure that ExoPlayer works correctly both on new devices, and on new platform builds for existing devices. This page describes compatibility tests that we recommend running before shipping a device or platform OTA, and some of the common failure modes encountered when running them.

## Running the tests

To run ExoPlayer’s playback tests, first check out the latest release of ExoPlayer from GitHub. You can then run the tests from the command line or Android Studio.

### Command line

From the root directory, build and install the playback tests:

./gradlew :playbacktests:installDebug


Next, run the playback tests in the GTS package:

adb shell am instrument -w -r -e debug false \
-e package com.google.android.exoplayer2.playbacktests.gts \


Test results appear in STDOUT.

### Android Studio

Open the ExoPlayer project, navigate to the playbacktests module, right click on the gts folder and run the tests. Test results appear in Android Studio’s Run window.

## Common failure modes

Some of the common failure modes encountered when running ExoPlayer’s playback tests are described below, together with the likely root cause in each case. We will add to this list as further failure modes are discovered.

### Unexpected video buffer presentation timestamp

Logcat will contain an error similar to:

Caused by: java.lang.IllegalStateException: Expected to dequeue video buffer
with presentation timestamp: 134766000. Instead got: 134733000 (Processed
buffers since last flush: 2242).


This failure is most often caused by the video decoder under test incorrectly discarding, inserting or re-ordering buffers. In the example above, the test expected to dequeue a buffer with presentation timestamp 134766000 from MediaCodec.dequeueOutputBuffer, but found that it dequeued a buffer with presentation timestamp 134733000 instead. We recommend that you check the decoder implementation when encountering this failure, in particular that it correctly handles adaptive resolution switches without discarding any buffers.

### Too many dropped buffers

Logcat will contain an error similar to:

junit.framework.AssertionFailedError: Codec(DashTest:Video) was late decoding:
200 buffers. Limit: 25.


This failure is a performance problem, where the video decoder under test was late decoding a large number of buffers. In the example above, ExoPlayer dropped 200 buffers because they were late by the time they were dequeued, for a test that imposes a limit of 25. The most obvious cause is that the video decoder is too slow decoding buffers. If the failures only occur for the subset of tests that play Widevine protected content, it’s likely that the platform operations for buffer decryption are too slow. We recommend checking the performance of these components, and looking at whether any optimizations can be made to speed them up.

### Native window could not be authenticated

Logcat will contain an error similar to:

SurfaceUtils: native window could not be authenticated
ExoPlayerImplInternal: Internal runtime error.
ExoPlayerImplInternal: android.media.MediaCodec\$CodecException: Error 0xffffffff


This failure is indicative of the platform failing to correctly set the secure bit flag.

### Test timed out

Logcat will contain an error similar to:

AssertionFailedError: Test timed out after 300000 ms.


This failure is most often caused by poor network connectivity during the test run. If the device appears to have good network connectivity then it’s possible that the test is getting stuck calling into a platform component (e.g. MediaCodec, MediaDrm, AudioTrack etc). Inspect the call stacks of the threads in the test process to establish whether this is the case.